> 5@ V}bjbj22 .XX/t&\&\&\&8&,&,C9''"((((((88888889RK<8\(((\(\(8((8333\(((83\(83333('L(gl\&.3z4T90C93=2=3=33(.H(T(88D$\&H3X\&RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS OF SELECTED TEACHERS VARIABLES AND STUDENTS ATTITUDES TOWARD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS IN ONDO STATE, NIGERIA.
By
GBORE, L.O. (Ph.D)
Department of Guidance
And Counselling
Adekunle Ajasin University, AkungbaAkoko
Ondo State, Nigeria.
Email: drglawolu @ yahoo.com.Uk
and
PROFESSOR DARAMOLA C.A
Department of Guidance and Counselling
Adekunle Ajasin University, AkungbaAkoko
Ondo State, NigeriaABSTRACT
This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers variables and students attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and expost facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and 180 senior secondary school three students were randomly selected from 36 senior secondary schools from the three Senatorial Districts of Ondo State using stratified random sampling technique. Teachers teaching attitudinal scale, Science oriented attitudinal scale and an inventory which requested for data from records on students senior secondary school certificate examination grades in biology were used for data collection. Data collected for the study were analysed using correlation matrix and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that significant relationships existed among the independent variables and students academic achievement in biology. Also 62.5% of the variance observed in students achievement in biology was explained by linear combination of the five predictor variables. Students attitude was the most potent contributor to the prediction. Teachers workload was the least contributor to the prediction. It was recommended that constant workshops and seminars should be made available by government for teachers to attend for the improvement of their teaching skills. Teachers and students were also charged to change their attitudes positively towards the teaching and learning of biology.
Introduction
Success in certain endeavours may be contingent upon certain factors. This may also be true of achievement in schooling. Good achievement in schooling could be the partial contributions of an individuals gender sensitivity, cognitive, affective (attitude) and psychomotor domains. Adodo (2007) argued that one key overriding factor for the success of students academic achievement is the teacher. In the same vein, Ibrahim (2000) believed that teachers qualifications and exposure can go a long way to bring about pupils high academic achievement. It is probably for this reason, Ibukun (2009) asserted that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Considering the assertions of Ibrahim (2000), Adodo (2007), and Ibukun (2009), it implies that teachers role in the preparation of students to succeed in examinations cannot be undermined.
Usman (2003) argued that shortage of qualified teachers is responsible for the poor academic achievement observable among the students while Ademulegun (2001) argued that students taught by more qualified and experienced teachers in terms of knowledge of the subject matter perform better than those taught by less qualified but experienced teachers. The educational analysis recently carried out in Nigeria by the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS, 2005) indicated that more than forty nine percent (49%) of the teachers in Nigeria are unqualified. This revealed the quality of teachers teaching various school subjects to the secondary school students. The teachers teaching biology as a subject in the various secondary schools would probably be among the said over forty nine percent unqualified teachers.
As important as knowledge of biology is to human beings, it appears students achievement in this subject at the secondary school level is becoming worse than in the other science subjects. Ibe and Maduabum (2001) argued that candidates performance at the senior school certificate examinations (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council have consistently remain poor, with biology having the highest enrolments and the poorest results over the years. Looking at the importance of biology to the national development and considering the state of poor academic achievement in this very subject at the secondary school level which incidentally serves as the foundation for advance learning and professional courses in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, nursing and other allied courses, the poor academic achievement observable in the biology results of the students should be a thing of serious concern to any citizen of Nigeria. The teachers attitude (TA), teachers qualifications (TQ), teachers workload (TW) in terms of number of students handled by teachers and the experience possessed by teachers (TE) teaching biology as a subject to the students coupled with the students attitude (SA) toward the subject may be responsible in part for the downward trend in achievement observed in the results of the students in the subject.
Attitude as a factor could be viewed as the totality of an individuals inclination towards object, institution or idea. Kerlinger (1977) stressing that it is an organized predisposition to think, feel, perceive and behave toward a referent or cognitive object. Attitude could be learnt or formed and acquired from member of the family, teacher and peer group. The learner acquires from the teachers disposition to form attitude towards learning which could positively or negatively affect his performance. Bandura (1971) posited that behaviours are acquired by watching another person who could be the parent, teacher or a peer group member performing the behaviour. Teachers are role models to the students because as they act, so do the students demonstrate and perfect such act or behaviour. It is very unfortunate that little did many teachers realize that the manner they handled the teaching of biology as a subject, behave and interact with the students as biology teachers could produce major effect on students achievement. Some teachers seem to have developed negative attitude towards teaching the students this subject (biology) that is very vital to human living. This may have been responsible for the negative attitude developed towards learning biology by the students. Duyilemi (1996) argued that some science teachers showed positive attitude towards teaching the science subjects while some exhibited negative attitude towards teaching science subjects to the students. Ali and Aigbomian (1990) have argued that the extent a student prefers a subject, to that extent the student works hard to achieve in it. A close examination of the submissions of Ali et al (1990) and Duyilemi (1996) revealed that academic achievement may be dependent upon positive attitude from the teachers and the students in the teaching/learning processes.
In his contribution, Okebukola (1986) pointed attention to the quality of biology teachers as the prime factor attributed to the cause of students consistent poor academic achievement in examinations. Oloyede (1992) seems to have proved the observation of Okebukola (1986) right by showing that a significant difference exists in the achievement of the students taught by professionally trained and nonprofessionally trained teachers in the art of teaching biology. Researchers have carried out studies on teachers demographic variables such as qualifications, age, experience, gender, attitude and students academic performance. For instance, Adepoju (2002) reported that a significant relationship exists between teachers variables such as gender, area of specialization, possession of academic qualification in education and the learning outcomes of secondary school students, but Igwe (1990) found no significant relationship between teachers qualifications and students achievement in biology, chemistry and physics at senior secondary school certificate level. Coleman (1966) and Jenecks (1972) expressed disagreement about the role of teachers qualification in accounting for educational outcomes. Although, Ayodele (1997) found a positive relationship between teachers qualifications and students academic achievement, Nyikana (1982) found out that inadequate qualifications of teachers contributed to students repetition of a class. However, Khan and Bertecher (1988) found out that there is a high and significant relationship between teachers qualification and global wastage ratio in basic education in Madagascar. Also Brembeck (1991) reported that the quality of teachers shows a greater relationship to students achievement than either facilities or curricula. Nevertheless, Ajewole (1990) did not completely agree with these findings and showed passive reservation concerning the relationship between teachers qualification and students achievement but concluded that there is need to carryout more careful investigations about it.
Studies have also shown that teachers experience exerts a great influence on the academic achievement of students. Ilugbusi, Falola and Daramola (2007) showed that teaching experience in schools count significantly in the determination of students achievement in external examinations such as West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE), National Examination Council (NECO), National Business and Technical Education Examinations and the Unified tertiary Matriculation Examination. According to them, inexperienced teachers are easily upset and destabilized by unfamiliar situations. This may imply that inexperienced teachers could get confused, mixed up the content of the topics taught to the students and hence the students will receive wrong information which would definitely lead to poor achievement among the students, while the experienced teachers are already immuned to classroom provocative situations and have developed resistance and several solutions against classroom confusion inducing agents. Also, Omenyi (1994) found that a significant difference exists between the performance ratings of inexperienced biology teachers and those of experienced teachers with the mean performance ratio of experience teachers being almost a factor of two larger than the inexperienced teachers. In the same vein, Gibbons, Kimmel and Oshea (1997) reported that there was a significant relationship between teachers experience and students academic achievement since students taught by more experienced teachers achieved at a higher level due to the fact that the experienced teachers have mastered the subject content and acquired cumulated classroom management skills and strategies to handle and cope with different classroom problems.
Literature has also indicated that teachers attitude and students attitude have exerted some influence on the academic achievement of students. For instance, Yara (2009) reported that teachers attitude towards science has strong relationship with students science achievement as well as the students attitude towards science. Onocha (1985) showed that teachers attitude towards science is a potent predictor of students academic achievement in science and attitude towards science learning, but Igwe (1985) reported that the effect of students attitude on achievement in mathematics is not as strong as the effect of teachers attitude on students achievement in mathematics. In a similar study Odunsi (1988) revealed that teachers attitude towards Integrated Science teaching influence students attitude toward learning Integrated Science and achievement in the subject. Also, Ogunwuyi (2000) reported a significant relationship between teachers attitude and students achievement in Integrated Science. However, Jackson (1968) argued that no apparent relationship exists between attitude and academic achievement. In some other studies carried out by researchers such as Ajayi (1999), it was revealed that no significant relationship exists between teachers workload and students academic achievement while Kolawole (1982) found that a negative relationship exists between the academic performance of students and class size but Walberg (1969) proved that a significant and consistent relationship exists in the academic achievement of students in small classes of between 120 students that obtained higher scores in science tests than their counterparts in large classes of more than 20 students.
Statement of the Problem
From the above, it is observed that previous studies have centered attention mainly on investigating the difference or relationship between individual (single) teachers variables and students academic achievement. Apparently further studies are required to investigate the combined contribution of teachers qualification (TQ), teachers attitude (TA), teachers workload (TW), teachers experience (TE) and students attitude (SA) towards students academic achievement at the senior secondary school level. Therefore, this study sought to investigate how well academic achievement in biology at the SSCE level could be explained by the combined influence of teachers qualification, teachers workload, teachers experience, teachers attitude and students attitude. In addressing this situation, the following research questions were generated to guide the study.
(i) Are there any relationship among teachers qualifications, teachers workload,
teachers attitude, teachers experience, students attitude and students academic
achievement in biology at the SSCE level?.
(ii) To what extent would teachers attitude, students attitude, teachers workload, teachers experience and teachers qualifications when taken together predict students academic achievement at the SSCE level?
(iii) What is the relative contribution of each of the teachers workload, teachers attitude, students attitude, teachers experience, and teachers qualifications to the prediction of academic achievement of the Senior Secondary School Students at the SSCE level?
Methodology
This study is designed along the line of both descriptive research of the survey type and expost facto research design. It surveyed the attitude of the teachers and the students towards teaching/learning biology. Ex post facto was involved because the researchers do not have direct control on the dependent and the independent variables, hence no treatment or manipulation of subjects instead data were collected from records. The population of the study comprised all the biology teachers and the senior secondary school class three (SSS III) students in Ondo State, Nigeria. The sample for the study consisted of 360 respondents made up of 180 teachers and 180 SSS III students randomly selected from the three senatorial Districts of Ondo State (Ondo South, Ondo Central and Ondo North) using Stratified random sampling technique. The instruments used for the study were Science Oriented Attitudinal Scale (SOAS) adopted from Omirin (1999), Teachers Teaching Attitudinal Scale (TAS) adapted from Craig, Franklin and Andrew (1984) locus of control of behaviour scale and TschannelMoran and WoolfolkHoy (2001) Teacher sense of efficacy scale and an inventory which requested for data on students senior secondary school certificate examination grades in biology. Both the teachers teaching attitudinal scale and the SOAS were revalidated by the researchers. The estimates of construct validity and internal consistency reliability for the TAS and SOAS as depicted by the Cronbach coefficient alpha values were 0.68 and 0.72 respectively. The academic achievement of the participating students was measured by their grades in the senior secondary school certificate examination collected from records.
Procedure
Each of the 360 respondents (180 teachers and 180 students) were given a copy of their questionnaire respectively to respond to for thirtyfive minutes. For the purpose of data analysis, the completed copies of the questionnaire were collected from the respondents and scored while the senior secondary school certificate letter grade for biology was converted to point for each participating student. The range of scores of the respondents in the TAS and SOAS fell between 20100 and 30135 respectively.
Data Analysis
The following statistical methods were used to answer the research questions. Correlation analysis (matrix) was used to estimate the relationships between teachers experience, teachers workload, teachers qualification, teachers attitude, students attitude and students final grade (SGB) in biology. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which the independent variables explain the criterion (final grade in biology) variable. Standardized regression coefficients (Beta) showed the relative contributions of the predictor variables to the criterion variable while unstandardized weight shows the predictive strength of the predictor variables on the criterion variable.
Results
The results of the analysis are as shown in tables 1, 2 and 3.
Table 1: Correlation Matrix showing the intercorrelation among the variables.
TWTASATETQSGBTW1.00TA0.4171.00SA0.4130.5631.00TE0.2640.3050.2411.00TQ0.2490.3180.2050.3251.00SGB0.4200.5360.6150.4070.5791.00
In table 1, it is observed that a moderate and positive significant relationship exists between teachers variables (TA and SGB, TQ and SGB), and students grade in biology with TA versus SGB = 0.536 and TQ versus SGB = 0.579. Students attitude also depicted that significant relationship exists between it and students grades in biology. However, teachers workload and teachers experience exhibited low significant relationship with students grades in biology (TW versus SGB = 0.420 and teachers experience versus SGB = 0.407) at 0.05 level of significance.
Table 2: Summary of Regression Analysis of the Predictor Variables on the criterion variables (SGB)
Multiple R0.792Source of varianceSSDfMsFcFtabR20.625Regression188.216547.054
152.14
2.23Adjusted R2 0.623Residual111.9563540.309Standard Error0.55612Total300.172359 Table 2 shows that there is linear positive relationship between the predictor variables (teachers workload, teachers attitude, students attitude, teachers experience, teachers qualifications) and the criterion variable (SGB) achievement in biology among the senior secondary school students. The table indicates that the multiple R was 0.792 which implies that there is high positive relationship among the predictor variables and the criterion variable. As much as 62.5% (as indicated by R square of 0.625) of the variation observed in the achievement in biology among secondary school students was explained by the combination of the predictor variables while the standard error of 0.55612 indicates that on the average the predicted achievement in biology will deviate form true value by 0.55612 limits of that measure. The analysis of variance for the multiple regression data yielded an Fratio of 152.14 which was significant at P < 0.05. This implies that the combination of the five predictor variables (TW, TA, SA, TE and TQ) have significant influence on achievement in biology among secondary school students.
Table 3:Test of Significance f Regression Coefficients
BSEBBetatTeachers workload (TW)5.716E.020.0300.0701.830Teachers Attitude (TA)0.1940.0220.3178.346Student Attitude (SA)0.3420.0270.45312.282Teachers Experience (TE)0.1270.0200.2096.015Teachers Qualification (TQ)0.1850.0210.3948.853Constant0.1100.1390.787P< 0.05 critical t = 1.960
From table 3, the regression equation derivable is: achievement in biology (SGB) = 5.716E.02 (TW) + 0.194 (TA) + 0.342 (SA) + 0.127 (TE) + 0.185 (TQ) 0.110. Hence, students attitude indicates the best predictor to achievement in biology. The table also reveals the relative contribution of each of the predictor variables to the prediction as shown in the values of the regression coefficients which ranged from 0.070 (7%) to 0.453 (45.3%) while the standard error ranged from 0.020 to 0.030 and the tvalues ranged from 1.830 to 12.282. The tvalues associated with teachers attitude, students attitude, teachers experience and teachers qualification were significant at 0.05 alpha level.
Discussion
The findings of this study showed that there was positive significant relationships among the teachers variables and students attitude. The finding is in agreement with the findings of Yara (2009) and Odunsi (1988). This result may be due to the manner of interaction between the teachers and the students which possibly resulted into behaviour unconsciously learnt from the teachers by the students. The finding also revealed that moderate and positive significant relationships exists between teachers variables and students academic achievement (grade points) in biology. This finding is in line with the findings of Adepoju (2002), Ogunwuyi (2000), Ayodele (1997), Gibbons et al (1997) and Khan et al (1988). The low and significant relationships observable between teachers workload, teachers experience and students achievement in biology could be due to lack of commitment on the part of the teachers, as well shallow knowledge of application of methodology and psychology of imparting the biology course content by the teachers into the students.
The result of this study further indicated that 62.5% of the variance in the academic achievement in biology among the secondary school students was explained by a linear combination of teachers attitude, qualification, experience, workload and students attitude. It also showed that students attitude has the most potent contribution to the prediction followed by teachers qualification and teachers attitude respectively while teachers workload showed the least contribution to the academic achievement in biology. This finding disagree with the finding of Igwe (1985) but supported the findings of Odunsi (1988) and Onocha (1985). This findings have shown that students attitude, teachers qualification and teachers attitude, were the most important factors than the other independent variables in the prediction of academic achievement in biology among the senior secondary school students.
Conclusion
Therefore, there is need for both the students and teachers of biology in senior secondary schools to have positive attitudinal change towards learning and teaching of biology accordingly to improve on the learning outcomes of secondary school students in biology. Government, both at the Federal and States Ministry of Education level, should as a matter concern, organize regular seminar and workshops for the teachers to refresh their memories about new developments and skills currently in use in the field of teaching biology to secondary school pupils in order to improve the quality of teaching strategies of the teachers as well as improving the learning processes of the students.
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